Phys.org Physics News Feeds

  • Amplified spontaneous emission source in a co-pumping, single-frequency Raman fiber amplifier
    on July 27, 2021 at 2:56 pm

    Recently, researchers from the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have provided the new idea of co-pumping single-frequency Raman amplifiers. Relevant result was published in Optics Express on May 7.

  • Researchers create powerful quantum source with meta-lens array
    on July 27, 2021 at 2:34 pm

    Researchers for the first time have demonstrated a quantum light source based on a meta-lens array. The approach offers a promising platform for both high-dimensional photon entanglement and the coherent control of multiple photons, making it suitable for advancing quantum technologies for secure communication, computing, and other applications.

  • Exploring quantum systems that don’t find equilibrium
    on July 27, 2021 at 2:34 pm

    Some physical systems, especially in the quantum world, do not reach a stable equilibrium even after a long time. An ETH researcher has now found an elegant explanation for this phenomenon.

  • Promising new technique is bringing the microscopic details of the brain into sharper focus
    on July 27, 2021 at 2:30 pm

    One of the greatest challenges in science is the study of the brain’s anatomy and cellular architecture. A promising new technique, developed by scientists in Italy, the UK and Germany, is now bringing the microscopic details of the brain into sharper focus even over macroscopic volumes.

  • How quantum fields could be used to break low-temperature records
    on July 27, 2021 at 2:29 pm

    At first glance, heat and cold do not have much to do with quantum physics. A single atom is neither hot nor cold. Temperature can traditionally only be defined for objects that consist of many particles. But at TU Wien, in collaboration with FU Berlin, Nanyang Technological University in Singapore and the University of Lisbon, it has now been possible to show what possibilities arise when thermodynamics and quantum physics are combined: One can specifically use quantum effects to cool a cloud of ultracold atoms even further.

  • Why beer mats do not fly in a straight line
    on July 27, 2021 at 1:27 pm

    Anyone who has ever failed to throw a beer mat into a hat should take note: physicists at the University of Bonn have discovered why this task is so difficult. However, their study also suggests how to significantly increase accuracy and range. The results are being publishing in the European Physical Journal Plus.

  • Under pressure, ‘squishy’ compound reacts in remarkable ways
    on July 27, 2021 at 8:26 am

    Remarkable things happen when a “squishy” compound of manganese and sulfide (MnS2) is compressed in a diamond anvil, say researchers from the University of Rochester and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV).

  • Through the thin-film glass, researchers spot a new liquid phase
    on July 26, 2021 at 7:00 pm

    Research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences describes a new type of liquid in thin films, which forms a high-density glass. Results generated in this study, conducted by researchers in Penn’s Department of Chemistry, demonstrate how these glasses and other similar materials can be fabricated to be denser and more stable, providing a framework for developing new applications and devices through better design.

  • ATLAS reports first observation of WWW production
    on July 26, 2021 at 6:44 pm

    The ATLAS Collaboration at CERN announces the first observation of “WWW production”: The simultaneous creation of three massive W bosons in high-energy Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collisions.

  • Now in 3D: Deep learning techniques help visualize X-ray data in three dimensions
    on July 26, 2021 at 6:13 pm

    Computers have been able to quickly process 2D images for some time. Your cell phone can snap digital photographs and manipulate them in a number of ways. Much more difficult, however, is processing an image in three dimensions, and doing it in a timely manner. The mathematics are more complex, and crunching those numbers, even on a supercomputer, takes time.

  • Scientists discover how high-energy electrons strengthen magnetic fields
    on July 26, 2021 at 4:43 pm

    More than 99% of the visible universe exists in a superheated state known as plasma—an ionized gas of electrons and ions. The motion of these charged particles produces magnetic fields that form an interstellar magnetic web. These magnetic fields are important for a wide range of processes, from the shaping of galaxies and the formation of stars to controlling the motion and acceleration of high-energy particles like cosmic rays—protons and electrons that zoom through the universe at nearly the speed of light.

  • Acoustic tweezers can pick up objects without physical contact
    on July 26, 2021 at 4:41 pm

    Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have developed a new technology which allows non-contact manipulation of small objects using sound waves. They used a hemispherical array of ultrasound transducers to generate a 3D acoustic field that stably trapped and lifted a small polystyrene ball from a reflective surface. Their technique employs a method similar to laser trapping in biology, but adaptable to a wider range of particle sizes and materials.

  • Combining two approaches to advance quantum computing
    on July 26, 2021 at 2:14 pm

    Quantum computers hold the potential to out-perform all conventional computing systems. Two promising physical implementations for the storage and manipulation of quantum information are the electromagnetic modes of superconducting circuits and the spins of small numbers of electrons trapped in semiconductor quantum dots.

  • To de-ice planes on the fly, researchers aim to control rather than combat ice formation
    on July 26, 2021 at 2:08 pm

    How do you control ice formation on a plane, even when it’s in flight? Jonathan Boreyko, associate professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, is leading a team working with Collins Aerospace to develop an approach using ice itself. In a study published in Physical Review Letters, they created a de-icing method that exploits how frost grows on pillar structures to suspend ice as it forms into a layer that’s easier to remove.

  • Physicists create polarization vortices in a two-dimensional material
    on July 26, 2021 at 1:54 pm

    A University of Arkansas research team, in conjunction with researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics and Beijing Academy of Quantum Information Sciences, has discovered polarization vortices in two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectrics.

  • The mechanics of puncture finally explained
    on July 26, 2021 at 7:25 am

    The feeling of a needle piercing skin is familiar to most people, especially recently as COVID-19 vaccinations gain momentum. But what exactly happens when a needle punctures skin? The answer is revealed in a new paper published recently in the Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids.

  • Nobel prize-winning physicist Steven Weinberg dies at 88
    on July 25, 2021 at 8:23 am

    Physicist Steven Weinberg, who won the Nobel prize in 1979 with two other scientists for their separate contributions unlocking mysteries of tiny particles and their electromagnetic interaction, has died at 88, the University of Texas at Austin said Saturday.

  • Dalian Coherent Light Source reveals strong isotope effects in photodissociation of water isotopologue
    on July 23, 2021 at 6:00 pm

    Recently, a research group led by Prof. Yuan Kaijun and Prof. Yang Xueming from the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences revealed strong isotope effects in photodissociation of the water isotopologue (HOD) using the Dalian Coherent Light Source.

  • Cascaded metasurfaces for dynamic control of THz wavefronts
    on July 23, 2021 at 4:17 pm

    Electromagnetic (EM) waves in the terahertz (THz) regime contribute to important applications in communications, security imaging, and bio- and chemical sensing. Such wide applicability has resulted in significant technological progress. However, due to weak interactions between natural materials and THz waves, conventional THz devices are typically bulky and inefficient. Although ultracompact active THz devices do exist, current electronic and photonic approaches to dynamic control have lacked efficiency.

  • The science of underwater swimming: How staying submerged gives Olympians the winning edge
    on July 23, 2021 at 3:00 pm

    To win swimming gold in Tokyo, swimmers not only have to generate incredible power with their arms and legs to propel themselves through the water; they also have to overcome the relentless pull of the water’s drag while doing so.

  • Generation and application of the high-Q resonance in all-dielectric metasurfaces
    on July 23, 2021 at 2:39 pm

    In a new publication from Opto-Electronic Advances, researchers led by Professor Liu Yan from Xidian University, China and Professor Gan Xuetao from Northwestern Polytechnical University, China, consider generation and application of the high-Q resonance in all-dielectric metasurfaces.

  • A device that cracks milk protein
    on July 23, 2021 at 2:24 pm

    After gaining world attention by ‘unboiling’ egg protein, Flinders University scientists have now used an Australian-made novel thin film microfluidic device to manipulate Beta-lactoglobulin (β-lactoglobulin), the major whey protein in cow, sheep and other mammal milks.

  • Exploring topology in biology
    on July 23, 2021 at 2:22 pm

    When can we say that a certain property of a system is robust? Intuitively, robustness implies that, even under the effect of external perturbations on the system, no matter how strong or random, said property remains unchanged. In mathematics, properties of an object that are robust against deformations are called topological. For example, the letters s, S, and L can be transformed into each other by stretching or bending their shape. The same holds true for letters o, O, and D. However, it is impossible to turn an S into an O without a discontinuous operation, such as cutting the O apart or sticking the two ends of the S together. Therefore, we say that the letters s, S and L have the same topology—as do the letters o, O and D—whereas the two groups of letters have different topologies. But how does topology relate to biology?

  • A new theory to explain the transparency of metallic oxides
    on July 23, 2021 at 1:53 pm

    The electrons of some metal oxides, due to their large effective mass when coupled with the ionic lattice of the material, cannot follow the electric field of light and allow it to pass through the material. Transparent and conductive materials are used in smartphone touch screens and solar panels for photovoltaic energy.

  • A curvy and shape-adaptive imager based on printed optoelectronic pixels
    on July 23, 2021 at 1:30 pm

    Curved imagers that can adjust their shape could have many valuable applications, for instance, aiding the development of more advanced medical imaging tools and cameras. Most existing flexible curvy imagers, however, are either not compatible with tunable focal surfaces or can only capture images with low resolutions and pixel fill factors.

  • Buzz about thermoelectrics heats up with promising new magnesium-based materials
    on July 23, 2021 at 9:18 am

    The landing of NASA’s Perseverance rover was another leap forward not only for space exploration but also for the technology that’s powering the craft on its years-long mission on Mars—a thermoelectric generator that turns heat into electricity.

  • Gaming graphics card allows faster, more precise control of fusion energy experiments
    on July 22, 2021 at 4:51 pm

    Nuclear fusion offers the potential for a safe, clean and abundant energy source.

  • Antimatter from laser pincers
    on July 22, 2021 at 4:16 pm

    In the depths of space, there are celestial bodies where extreme conditions prevail: Rapidly rotating neutron stars generate super-strong magnetic fields. And black holes, with their enormous gravitational pull, can cause huge, energetic jets of matter to shoot out into space. An international physics team with the participation of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) has now proposed a new concept that could allow some of these extreme processes to be studied in the laboratory in the future: A special setup of two high-intensity laser beams could create conditions similar to those found near neutron stars. In the discovered process, an antimatter jet is generated and accelerated very efficiently. The experts present their concept in the journal Communications Physics

  • An X-ray vision-like camera to rapidly retrieve 3D images
    on July 22, 2021 at 3:57 pm

    It’s not exactly X-ray vision, but it’s close. In research published in the journal Optica, University of California, Irvine researchers describe a new type of camera technology that, when aimed at an object, can rapidly retrieve 3D images, displaying its chemical content down to the micrometer scale. The new tech promises to help companies inspect things like the insides of computer chips without having to pry them open—an advancement the researchers say could accelerate the production time of such goods by more than a hundred times.

  • Imaging tool under development exposes concealed detonators—and their charge
    on July 22, 2021 at 1:39 pm

    Behold the neutron, the middle child of subatomic particles. At times overshadowed by its electrically charged siblings the proton and the electron, neutrons quietly play important roles in national security. They start nuclear reactions for weapons and power plants. They bombard materials for nuclear safety tests. And now they have a new skill: telling whether a concealed, electric detonator is charged.