Author: Insights into Mathematics
This video gives a brief introduction to Topology. The subject goes back to Euler (as do so many things in modern mathematics) with his discovery of the Euler characteristic of a polyhedron, although arguably Descartes had found something close to this in his analysis of curvature of a polyhedron. We introduce this via rational turn angles, a renormalization of angle where a full turn has the value one (very reasonable, and ought to be used more!!) The topological nature of the Euler characteristic was perhaps first understood by Poincare, and we sketch his argument for its invariance under continuous transformations.
We discuss the sphere, torus, genus g surfaces and the classification of orientable, and non-orientable closed 2 dimensional surfaces, such as the Mobius band (which has a boundary) and the projective plane (which does not). The interest in these objects resulted from Riemann’s work on surfaces associated to multi-valued functions in the setting of complex analysis.
Finally we briefly mention the important notion of a simply connected space, and the Poincare conjecture, solved recently, according to current accounts, by G. Perelman.
If you enjoy this subject, you can have a look at my video series Algebraic Topology. This series has now also been continued, so if you go to the Playlist MathHistory, you will find more videos on the History of Mathematics.
Screenshot PDFs for my videos are available at the website http://wildegg.com. These give you a concise overview of the contents of the lectures for various Playlists: great for review, study and summary.
My research papers can be found at my Research Gate page, at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Norman_Wildberger
My blog is at http://njwildberger.com/, where I will discuss lots of foundational issues, along with other things.
Online courses will be developed at openlearning.com. The first one, already underway is Algebraic Calculus One at https://www.openlearning.com/courses/algebraic-calculus-one/ Please join us for an exciting new approach to one of mathematics’ most important subjects!
If you would like to support these new initiatives for mathematics education and research, please consider becoming a Patron of this Channel at https://www.patreon.com/njwildberger Your support would be much appreciated .
Video source Youtube